Breaches in Lease Agreements in Denmark: What Are My Options?

Navigating tenant breaches in Denmark involves clear steps: from dialogue and formal notices to mediation and legal actions, ensuring both parties' rights are upheld effectively.

Breaches in Lease Agreements in Denmark: What Are My Options?
Photo by Andrea Piacquadio

Renting out a room or property in Denmark can be a lucrative endeavor, but it's not without its challenges, particularly when a tenant breaches their rental agreement. Such situations are undoubtedly frustrating and can be quite stressful. Fortunately, the Danish legal framework provides clear paths for resolution.

It’s crucial to have a well-drafted rental agreement in Denmark, which outlines the responsibilities and expectations for both landlords and tenants. Despite this precaution, breaches can and do occur. If you find yourself in a situation where a tenant has violated their agreement, there are several steps you can take as a landlord to address the issue effectively.

This blog will detail each option available to you, helping you understand your legal rights and obligations. Whether you’re managing multiple properties or just renting out a spare room in your home, the forthcoming advice will guide you through handling breaches in a manner that respects both your rights and those of your tenant, aiming for a resolution that minimizes conflict and adheres to Danish housing regulations.

What is a Room Rental Agreement?

A room rental agreement in Denmark, similar to other rental agreements, is a legally binding document between a landlord and a tenant, specifically outlining the terms for renting a room within a larger property, such as a house or an apartment. This type of arrangement is common when the property owner lives in the same property and rents out individual rooms to one or more tenants.

The agreement typically includes the duration of the tenancy (fixed-term or indefinite), monthly rent, what the rent covers (such as utilities, internet, etc.), the deposit amount, rules about the use of common areas, and any specific duties or restrictions imposed on the tenant or landlord.

What should I do when a rental agreement is breached?

1. Communication and a Verbal Warning

When dealing with a breach of rental agreement as a landlord in Denmark, starting with communication and a warning can often be the most effective and least confrontational approach. Initiate a conversation with your tenant about the breach. This could be related to late rent payments, unauthorized occupants, or other violations of the rental agreement. An open dialogue can help you understand the reasons behind the breach and express your concerns directly.

Clearly explain what terms of the agreement have been breached. Provide a copy of the rental agreement if necessary, highlighting relevant clauses to remind the tenant of their obligations. Discuss and agree on steps the tenant can take to rectify the breach. For example, if the breach involves delayed rent payments, you could arrange a payment plan. Specify deadlines by which the breach should be remedied.

2. Written Warning

If initial communications do not resolve the issue, a formal warning may be necessary. This should be a written statement detailing the breach, the required actions to remedy it, and the consequences of failing to do so, such as potential termination of the lease. Ensure that all communications are documented, which could be helpful if the dispute escalates. Sending a formal letter or email detailing the issues provides a record that can be referenced later.

In your written warning, make sure to specify a clear deadline for when the actions should be completed. Typically, this is set as 14 days from the receipt of the notice, aligning with common legal practices in Denmark for giving tenants a reasonable time to address the issue.

3. Mediation

Mediation is a conflict resolution process where an impartial third party, the mediator, helps the disputing parties find a mutually acceptable solution. It is typically a voluntary process, meaning both the landlord and the tenant must agree to participate. You can find mediators through local legal aid organizations, the Danish Rent Tribunal, or private mediation services. It's important to choose a mediator experienced in tenancy law.

Mediation is a valuable step when dealing with a tenant who has breached their rental agreement, especially if direct communication and formal written notices have not resolved the issue. Unlike court cases, mediation is a private process, which can help maintain a better relationship between the landlord and tenant.

4. Rent Tribunal

If mediation does not resolve the issue of a tenant's breach in Denmark, contacting the Rent Tribunal is the next step. The Rent Tribunal in Denmark is a judicial body that resolves disputes between landlords and tenants, primarily concerning rental terms, rent levels, and tenant evictions. It is designed to be a more accessible and less formal alternative to court proceedings, making it easier for both landlords and tenants to present their cases.

The Rent Tribunal handles cases of rent disputes, service charges, condition of the property, and eviction cases. Once you've gathered all relevant documentation, such as the rental agreement, any correspondence with the tenant, records of payments, and evidence of the breach, you can file a complaint to the Rent Tribunal. This can usually be done online, by mail, or in person at a local tribunal office.

Both parties will be called to a hearing where they can present their evidence and arguments. The tribunal typically encourages resolution through agreement but will issue a binding decision if necessary. Decisions made by the Rent Tribunal are legally binding and enforceable. If unsatisfied with the tribunal’s decision, parties usually have the right to appeal to a higher court, although this is subject to specific conditions and time limits.

5. Termination of Lease and Eviction

If other resolution methods, like direct communication, written notices, and mediation through the Rent Tribunal, fail to rectify a tenant's breach of the rental agreement, you as a landlord in Denmark might consider terminating the lease. However, there are specific legal grounds for termination:

  • Serious Breach: The termination of a lease is generally justified by a serious breach of the rental agreement, such as persistent late payments, significant damage to the property, or engaging in illegal activities on the premises.
  • Documented Evidence: Ensure that you have documented all instances of the breach, as well as your attempts to resolve the issue through less drastic measures before proceeding to termination.

To begin the process of termination, provide the tenant with a written notice of termination, outlining the reasons for termination and referencing the specific breaches of the agreement. The notice should also specify the termination date. The required notice period must be adhered to, which is typically three months for most residential leases, unless the breach allows for immediate termination according to the Danish Rent Act. Be prepared for the possibility that the tenant might dispute the termination, potentially leading to a legal challenge that could require adjudication by the Rent Tribunal or a court.

Given the complexities and potential legal ramifications of terminating a lease, consulting with a lawyer experienced in Danish tenancy law is advisable to ensure that the process is handled correctly. The termination notice must comply with all legal requirements, including those specified in the Danish Rent Act, to ensure it is enforceable.

Once the lease is terminated, the tenant is required to vacate the property by the specified date. If the tenant leaves behind personal property, you must follow legal procedures for handling abandoned property, which may require you to store the property for a certain period and notify the tenant before disposal.

6. Eviction

If a tenant fails to vacate the property following a lease termination or continues to violate the terms of the lease despite a termination notice, as a landlord in Denmark, you may need to proceed with an eviction. Like termination of lease, there are also specific legal grounds for eviction:

  • Non-compliance with Termination: If the tenant does not leave the property after the lease has been legally terminated and the notice period has expired.
  • Severe Breach of Contract: Including, but not limited to, significant damage to the property, chronic non-payment of rent, or illegal activities being conducted on the premises.

To evict your tenant, you must apply to the court for an eviction order. This application should include all relevant documentation proving the tenant's breach and your prior attempts to resolve the issue, including termination notices. The court will schedule a hearing where both you and the tenant can present your cases. It is crucial to provide concrete evidence of the breach and any communications related to the termination of the lease.

Throughout the eviction process, keep detailed records of all communications, notices, legal papers, and interactions related to the eviction. These documents may be necessary for legal verification or in case of disputes in the future.

If the court finds in your favor, it will issue an eviction order. This legally compels the tenant to vacate the premises by a specific date. nce the eviction order is executed and the tenant vacates the premises, you regain full possession of the property. You should then conduct a thorough inspection to assess any damages and determine if any repairs are needed.


Renting out a room or property in Denmark offers many opportunities but also poses challenges, especially when facing a breach of the rental agreement by a tenant. Navigating these situations requires an understanding of Danish housing laws, which provide structured remedies to address such issues effectively.

This guide has outlined practical steps to manage and resolve breaches in rental agreements, from initial communication to possible eviction. The aim is to handle disputes amicably while upholding the rights of both parties and minimizing conflict. Ensuring that you are informed about the legal framework in Denmark will help you manage your rental property more effectively, providing peace of mind and stability in your rental endeavors.

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